ISS Module Soyuz TMA-12

The Soyuz-TMA version was designed for use as a lifeboat for the International Space Station. It incorporated several changes to accommodate NASA requirements, including more latitude in the height and weight of the crew and improved parachute systems. The spacecraft also incorporates two new amber cockpit displays. In addition to the three crew, the TMA could deliver up to 100 kg of payload to the station and return up to 50 kg.

Crew Size: 3. Design Life: 14 days. Orbital Storage: 200 days. Typical orbit: 407 km circular orbit, 51.6 deg inclination. Length: 6.98 m (22.90 ft). Basic Diameter: 2.20 m (7.20 ft). Maximum Diameter: 2.72 m (8.92 ft). Span: 10.70 m (35.10 ft). Habitable Volume: 9.00 m3. Mass: 7,220 kg (15,910 lb). Main Engine: KTDU-80. Main Engine Thrust: 3.920 kN (881 lbf). Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. Main Engine Propellants: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Main Engine Isp: 305 sec. Spacecraft delta v: 390 m/s (1,270 ft/sec). Electrical System: Solar panels, span 10.60 m, area 10.00 sq. m. Electric System: 0.60 average kW.

Soyuz TMA BO. Other Designations: Bytovoy otsek. Class: Manned. Type: Spacecraft Module. Purpose: Living section.
Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel (Collar Length: 0.22 m. Probe Length: 0.50 m. Base Diameter: 1.35 m. Ring Diameter: 1.35 m). Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system with two Kurs antennae, no tower. One window, BO separated after retrofire.

Length: 2.98 m (9.77 ft). Basic Diameter: 2.26 m (7.41 ft). Maximum Diameter: 2.26 m (7.41 ft). Habitable Volume: 5.00 m3. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb).

Soyuz TMA SA. Other Designations: Spuskaemiy apparat. Class: Manned. Type: Spacecraft Module. Purpose: Reentry capsule.
This improved Soyuz TM re-entry capsule met NASA demands for a capsule that could accommodate ISS crew members in a wider range of body weights and heights than the original Soyuz design. Changes were also made to reduce impact during soft landing. Accommodation was provided for a crew of three in spacesuits.

A digital computer operated the spacecraft, controlled via new amber digital displays in a reduced-height control panel. Other changes and improvements to previous models included an in-line periscope, covers on the portholes that jettisoned after re-entry, enlarged touchdown rockets, an improved parachute, and a high-rate telemetry system. The capsule could carry 100 kg of payload in addition to the crew up to the station, and 50 kg back. The modifications in comparison to the basic Soyuz TM spacecraft were:

Three longer Kazbek-UM impact-absorbing crew seats were installed with new four-mode dampers that adjusted the seat response according to the astronaut’s mass.
Re-arrangement of the equipment in the capsule above and below the seats to accommodate the longer seats and enlarge the passage area through the forward access hatch. The items modified to accomplish this included a new decreased-height control panel, a new cooling-drying ECS subassembly, and a revised data storage system. The SA primary structure right and left of the seat footrests had to be stamped out 30mm deep to allow for the longer seats. The primary structure and the routing of pipes and cables had to be changed to accommodate this. The crew cabin was cleared of projecting items.
Two (of six single-mode) soft landing engines (SLE) were replaced with two new three-mode engines (SLE-M) to improve soft landing performance. The touchdown speed was reduced to from 2.6 to 1.4 m/s versus 3.6 / 2.6 for the Soyuz TM. Landing with only the reserve parachute was reduced to 4.0 to 2.4 m/s versus 6.1 to 4.3 m/s for the Soyuz TM.
An improved Kaktus-2V gamma-altimeter replaced the Kaktus-1V in the soft-landing system.
As a result of these changes, astronauts of from 150 to 190 cm height, up to 99 cm sitting height, and from 50 to 95 kg mass could be accommodated in the Soyuz TMA capsule (previous limits were 164 to 184 cm height, 94 cm sitting height, and 56 to 85 kg mass).
Crew Size: 2. Length: 2.24 m (7.34 ft). Basic Diameter: 2.17 m (7.11 ft). Maximum Diameter: 2.17 m (7.11 ft). Habitable Volume: 3.50 m3. Mass: 2,950 kg (6,500 lb). Crew mass: 255 kg (562 lb). Payload: 1,355 kg (2,987 lb). RCS Coarse No x Thrust: 6 X 98 N. RCS Propellants: H2O2. Expr24: 40. Main Engine Propellants: 45 kg (99 lb).

Soyuz TMA PAO. Other Designations: Priborno-agregatniy otsek. Class: Manned. Type: Spacecraft Module. Purpose: Equipment-engine section.
Further improvement of Soyuz T PAO service module with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. The new KTDU-80 propulsion system, developed from a NII Mash experimental thruster, included four spherical tanks with a total of 880 kg propellant. The variable thrust engine could achieve three different thrust levels through adjustment of four valves: 6000 N, 0.7 N, 0.3 N. Specific impulse varied from 326 – 286 sec according to setting.

Length: 2.26 m (7.41 ft). Basic Diameter: 2.15 m (7.05 ft). Maximum Diameter: 2.72 m (8.92 ft). Mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). RCS Coarse No x Thrust: 16 X 98 N. RCS Fine No x Thrust: 8 X 98 N. RCS Coarse Backup No x Thrust: No separate backup translation engines. RCS Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. Main Engine: KTDU-80. Main Engine: 310 kg (680 lb). Main Engine Thrust: 6.197 kN (1,393 lbf). Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. Main Engine Propellants: 880 kg (1,940 lb). Main Engine Isp: 302 sec. Electrical System: Solar panels, span 10.60 m, area 10.00 sq. m. Electric System: 0.60 average kW.

Soyuz TMA Chronology
1996 June 1 – Soyuz TMA, X-38 selected as ISS lifeboat over Alpha Lifeboat – Program: ISS.
The Alpha lifeboat was based on the Zarya reentry vehicle with a solid retrofire motor and cold gas thruster package. The design was rejected in favor of use of modified Soyuz TM in short term, US X-38 in long term.
2002 October 30 – Soyuz TMA-1 – Program: ISS. Crew: Zalyotin, De Winne, Lonchakov. Flight: ISS EP-4. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: LC1. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Perigee: 278 km (172 mi). Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Inclination: 51.62 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Duration: 185.96 days.
Launch delayed from October 22, 28 pending investigation of causes of failure of another Soyuz booster on 15 October. Soyuz-TMA 1 was a Russian automatic passenger craft. It carried the EP-4 visiting crew of three astronauts (two Russians and one Belgian) to automatically dock with the International Space Station (ISS). This was the first flight of the new Soyuz-TMA model. It was to remain parked at the ISS as the escape craft, relieving the Soyuz TM-34. The crew conducted several microgravity experiments on the ISS during their 10-day stay before returning in Soyuz TM-34.
2003 April 18 – Soyuz TMA-2A (cancelled) – Program: ISS. Crew: Padalka, Duque, Kotov. Flight: Soyuz TMA-2A.
Soyuz TMA-2 was originally to switch lifeboats on the International Space Station. The crew would have returned to earth in the Soyuz TMA-1 already docked to the station. After the loss of Columbia, and the grounding of the remaining shuttles, it was decided instead that the EO-6 crew (Bowersox, Budarin, and Pettit) aboard the station would return in Soyuz TMA-1. Soyuz TMA-2 would be instead flown by a two-man skeleton crew (Malenchenko and Lu) to keep the station alive until shuttle flights could resume.
2003 April 26 – Soyuz TMA-2 – Program: ISS. Crew: Malenchenko, Lu. Flight: ISS EO-7. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: LC1. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Perigee: 386 km (239 mi). Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Duration: 184.95 days.
Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle is grounded. Replaced three-man crew aboard ISS since before STS-107 disaster.
2003 October 18 – Soyuz TMA-3 – Program: ISS. Crew: Foale, Kaleri, Duque. Flight: ISS EO-8, ISS Cervantes, ISS EO-7. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: LC1. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Perigee: 376 km (233 mi). Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 92.20 min.
The spacecraft carried the Expedition 8 crew of Mike Foale and Aleksandr Kaleri and the EP-5 (Cervantes) mission crewmember Pedro Duque. During the flight to the station spacecraft Commander was Aleksandr Kaleri . Soyuz TMA-3 docked with the Pirs module at 07:16 GMT on October 20. Once the EO-7 crew aboard the ISS was relieved, the roles switched, with Foale becoming the ISS Commander. Duque carried out out 24 experiments in the fields of life and physical sciences, Earth observation, education and technology. The experiments were sponsored by the European Space Agency and Spain. After ten days in space, Duque returned to earth with the EO-7 crew of Malenchenko and Lu aboard Soyuz TMA-2.
2003 November 12 – Soyuz TMA-3A (cancelled) – Program: ISS. Crew: Dezhurov, Kuipers, Skripochka. Flight: Soyuz TMA-3A.
Soyuz TMA-3 was originally to switch lifeboats on the International Space Station. The crew would have returned to earth in the Soyuz TMA-2 already docked to the station. After the Columbia disaster, the remaining shuttles were grounded. The Soyuz was then the only means of keeping the station manned. It was therefore decided that Soyuz TMA-3 would fly with the skeleton crew of Foale and Kaleri.
2004 April 19 – Soyuz TMA-4 – Program: ISS. Crew: Fincke, Padalka, Kuipers. Flight: ISS EO-8, ISS EO-9, ISS Delta. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: LC1. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Apogee: 367 km (228 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Duration: 187.89 days.
Soyuz TMA-4 was ISS transport mission ISS 8S and delivered the EO-9 caretaker crew of Gennadiy Padalka and Michael Fincke, together with the ESA/Netherlands Delta mission crewmember Andre Kuipers, to the Space Station. Soyuz TMA-4 docked with the nadir port on Zarya at 05:01 GMT on April 21 and the hatches to the ISS were opened at 06:30 GMT. Another gyro on the station had shut down prior to the docking and possibly would require a maintenance spacewalk to replace its failed electronics.
After Soyuz TMA-5 docked with the ISS on October 16, the EO-9 crew handed activities over to the EO-10 crew.

2004 May 1 – Soyuz TMA-4A (cancelled) – Program: ISS. Crew: Musabayev, Schlegel. Flight: Soyuz TMA-4A.
Soyuz TMA-4 was originally to switch lifeboats on the International Space Station. The crew would have returned to earth in the Soyuz TMA-3 already docked to the station. After the Columbia disaster, the remaining shuttles were grounded. The Soyuz was then the only means of keeping the station manned. It was therefore decided that Soyuz TMA-4 would fly with the skeleton crew of McArthur and Tokarev.
2004 October 14 – Soyuz TMA-5 – Program: ISS. Crew: Chiao, Sharipov, Shargin. Flight: ISS EO-10. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: LC1. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Perigee: 353 km (219 mi). Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Duration: 192.79 days.
Soyuz TMA-5 docked with the Pirs module on October 16 at 0416 GMT. Aboard the spacecraft were the EO-10 crew of Sharipov and Chiao, and guest cosmonaut Shargin. After a week at the station, the EO-9 crew of Padalka and Fincke, together with Shargin, entered Soyuz TMA-4 at 18:14 GMT on October 23 and returned to earth. Chiao and Sharipov continued as the ISS skeleton station crew.
2005 April 15 – Soyuz TMA-6 – Program: ISS. Crew: Krikalyov, Phillips, Vittori. Flight: ISS EO-11, ISS EP-8, ISS EO-10. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: LC1. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Apogee: 360 km (220 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
The Soyuz TMA-6 docked with International Space Station’s Pirs module at 02:20 GMT on April 17. Commander of the long-duration EO-11 crew was Russian cosmonaut Sergey Krikalyov. Flight engineer and science officer was American astronaut John Phillips. Italian Roberto Vittori accompanied the EO-10 crew aboard Soyuz TMA-6 to the station on the European Space Agency EP-8 Eneide mission.
2005 October 1 – Soyuz TMA-7 – Program: ISS. Crew: Tokarev, McArthur, Olsen. Flight: ISS EO-11, ISS EO-12, ISS EP-10. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: LC1. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Perigee: 347 km (215 mi). Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Duration: 189.83 days.
Launch delayed from September 27. Soyuz TMA-7 docked with the International Space Station at 05:27 GMT on 3 October, bringing the long duration EO-12 crew of (McArthur, Commander; Tokarev, Flight Engineer) and space tourist Olsen. McArthur, Tokarev and Pontes (brought to the station aboard Soyuz TMA-8) transferred to TMA-7 on April 8, 2006, closing the hatches at 17:15 GMT and undocking from Zvezda at 20:28 GMT, leaving Vinogradov and Williams from Soyuz TMA-8 as the Expedition 13 in charge of the station. Soyuz TMA-7 fired its engines at 22:58 GMT for the deorbit burn and landed in Kazakhstan at 23:48 GMT.
2006 March 30 – Soyuz TMA-8 – Program: ISS. Crew: Vinogradov, Williams Jeffrey, Pontes. Flight: ISS EO-13, ISS EO-12, ISS EP-10. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: LC1. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Duration: 182.95 days.
Soyuz TMA-8 docked with the Zarya nadir port of the ISS at 04:19 GMT on April 1. It undocked from Zarya on 28 September at 21:53 GMT, with the return crew of Vinogradov, Williams and space tourist Ansari aboard. It landed in Kazakhstan at 01:13 GMT on 29 September.
2006 September 18 – Soyuz TMA-9 – Program: ISS. Crew: Tyurin, Lopez-Alegria, Ansari. Flight: ISS EO-14, ISS EO-13. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: LC1. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Duration: 215.35 days.
Carried the Expedition 14 crew and space tourist Anousheh Ansari to the International Space Station. Ansari replaced tourist Daisuke Enomoto, who was removed from flight status by the Russians just 28 days before the flight. Docked at the Zvezda port of the station at 05:21 GMT on September 20. On 21 April 2007, Lopez-Alegria, Tyurin and space tourist Charles Simonyi (who was taken to the station aboard Soyuz TMA-10) boarded Soyuz TMA-9, separated from the ISS, conducted retrofire, and landed in Kazakhstan at 12:31 GMT.
2007 April 7 – Soyuz TMA-10 – Program: ISS. Crew: Yurchikhin, Kotov, Simonyi. Flight: ISS EO-15, ISS EP-12. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: LC1. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Duration: 196.71 days.
Carried the Expedition 15 crew and space tourist Charles Simonyi to the International Space Station. Soyuz TMA-10 docked at the Zarya port of the International Space Station at 19:10 GMT on 9 April. It undocked from Zarya at 19:20 GMT on Sep 27 September and docked at the Zvezda port at 19:47 GMT to clear Zarya for Soyuz TMA-10.
The EO-15 crew and EP-13 space tourist Shukor (brought to the station by Soyuz TMA-11) boarded Soyuz TM-10 and undocked from the Zvezda port at 07:14 GMT on 21 October. The re-entry burn began at 09:47 and was normal. But afterwards, due to failure of an explosive bolt, the Soyuz service module remained connected to the re-entry capsule. The Soyuz tumbled, then began re-entry with the forward hatch taking the re-entry heating, until the connecting strut burned through. The Soyuz the righted itself with the heat shield taking the heating, but defaulted to an 8.6 G ballistic re-entry, landing 340 km short of the aim point at 10:36 GMT. Improved procedures after the ballistic re-entry of Soyuz TMA-1 meant a helicopter recovery crew reached the capsule only 20 minutes after thumpdown. However the true nature of the failure was concealed from the world until the same thing happened on Soyuz TMA-11.

2007 October 10 – Soyuz TMA-11 – Program: ISS. Crew: Whitson, Malenchenko, Muszaphar. Flight: ISS EO-16, ISS EP-13. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: LC1. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Apogee: 344 km (213 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Duration: 191.80 days.
Soyuz TMA-11 delivered the EO-16 crew of Whitson and Malenchenko and EP-13 space tourist Shukor to the International Space Station. The Soyuz docked at the Zarya module at 14:50 GMT on 12 October. Whitson was EO-16 commander, with third astronaut Clay Anderson remaining aboard the station after the EO-15 crew and Shukor returned to earth on Soyuz TMA-10.
Malenchenko and Whitson, together with visiting Korean astronaut Yi, who had been delivered to the ISS by Soyuz TMA-12, undocked from the station aboard Soyuz TMA-11 at 05:06 GMT on 19 April 2008. Following the deorbit burn at 07:40 GMT the aft service module of the Soyuz failed to separate and the spacecraft began re-entry in a reversed position, with the forward hatch taking the initial re-entry heating. As was the case with Soyuz 5 in 1970, the connections with the service module finally melted away, and the freed capsule righted itself aerodynamically with the heat shield taking the brunt of the re-entry heating. However the crew experienced a rough ride, a ballistic re-entry of over 8 G’s force, smoke in the cabin, a failure of the soft landing system, and a very hard landing. They landed 470 km short of the target point at 50 deg 31″ N, 61 deg 7″ E at 08:29 GMT. A small grass fire was started at the landing point and the injured crew had to be helped from the capsule by passers-by. Malenchenko and Whitson suffered no permanent injury, but Yi was hit by Whitson’s personal effects bag on impact and required physical therapy for neck and spine injuries.

2008 April 8 – Soyuz TMA-12 – Crew: Volkov Sergey, Kononenko O D, Yi So-yeon. Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz. Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Inclination: 51.60 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Duration: 10.88 days.
Launched the EO-17 long-duration crew to replace the EO-16 crew. The commander was the son of cosmonaut Aleksandr Volkov. Also aboard was Oleg Kononenko (no relation to the 1970’s Buran pilot of the same name) and Korean astronaut Yi Soyeon. Soyuz TMA-12 docked at the Pirs module of the International Space Station on 2008 Apr 10 at 12:57 GMT on 10 April. Volkov and Kononenko stayed aboard as the EO-17 long duration crew. Yi returned to earth with the EO-16 crew aboard Soyuz TMA-11.

Bibliography:
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan’s Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: http://www.planet4589.org/jsr.html.
RSC Energia Web Site, Web Address when accessed: http://www.energia.ru/.
NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: http://oig1.gsfc.nasa.gov/.
Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: http://www.orbireport.com/Log.html.

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