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The Brazilian Space Agency is responsible for managing Brazil's space policy.[1] Satellite development is overseen by the National Institute of Space Research, a civilian body.[2]  Brazil's satellite efforts focus on advancing scientific research and technology to benefit Brazilian society.[3]  However, the Brazilian Air Force, which manages rocket development, has yet to conduct a successful flight test of the Brazilian-designed rocket, called the Veiculo Lançador de Satelite (VLS).[2,4]  The August 2003 VLS rocket launch failure, which killed 21 people, prompted a government investigation.[4]  The investigation's report, released in March 2004, pointed to poor funding and lax management as contributors to the failure and made recommendations to correct these flaws.[4]  Brazilian Defense Minister Jose Viegas ordered the Air Force to implement these recommendations.[4]  Because the Defense Ministry has jurisidiction over the VLS rocket and Brazil's Alcantara Launch Center, the Brazilian Space Agency had no authority to take any measures following the catastrophe, prompting criticism of the agency's ability to fulfill its role as head of the space sector.[1]

In 2004, Brazil dedicated approximately $35 million (88 million reais) to its space program, and the Brazilian Space Agency sought $100 million for the space budget in 2005.[5]

[1] Jose Montserrat Filho, "The Crisis of the Brazilian Space Agency," Jornal do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro), February 25, 2004; in "Brazil:  Jurist Argues in Favor of Space Agency Carrying Out Space Policy," FBIS Document LAP20040225000051.
[2] Larry Rohter, "Brazil's Soaring Space-Age Ambitions Are Shy of Cash and Sapped by Calamity," The New York Times online edition, January 23, 2004, http://www.nytimes.com.
[3] "Mission," National Institute of Space Research website, http://www.inpe.br/english/about_inpe/mission.htm.
[4] Stan Lehman, "Space Program Leaders Blamed for Brazil Accident," Associated Press, March 16, 2004, http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2004-03-16-brazil-report_x.htm.
[5] "Brazil: Space Agency Sets Program's Budget Goal for 2005 at $100 Million," Gazeta Mercantil (Sao Paulo), January 10, 2005, FBIS Document LAP20050111000059.



China has pursuits in both civilian and military space technology. The Chinese National Space Administration coordinates China's activities with other national space programs, while the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation is the primary entity responsible for China's domestic space needs, including the development of launch vehicles and satellites and the conduct of launches.[1,2] China is one of three nations to have achieved success in recovering satellites and executing a manned space mission.[3,4]


China's goals for the first decade of the 21st century include: developing an earth observation system, a satellite navigation and positioning system, an independent telecommunications satellite network, and a complete satellite remote-sensing application system; upgrading the current capability of its Long March launch vehicles; and establishing a research, development, and testing system for its manned space program.[5]


[1] "China National Space Administration (CNSA)," Nuclear Threat Initiative website, http://www.nti.org/db/china/cnsa.htm.
[2] "China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASTC)," Nuclear Threat Initiative website,
[3] "Satellite Launch Centers," China.org website, http://www.china.org.cn/english/SPORT-c/77178.htm.
[4] "White Paper Hails China's Achievements in Space Program," Xinhua, November 22, 2000,  FBIS Document CPP20001122000026.

[5] China's Space Activities (White Paper), (Beijing: The State Council Information Office, P.R.C., November 2000). {Updated 10/20/2005}



France established its national space agency, the Centre national d'etudes spatiales (CNES - National Space Studies Center), in 1961.[1] CNES is a civilian agency that is in charge of proposing and implementing all aspects of French space policy, including the design, development, and production of new technologies.[2] CNES works in coordination with French military institutions and oversees military space policy applications.[1,3]

France is also an important member state of the European Space Agency (ESA), which has its headquarters in Paris.[4] Since the establishment of ESA, France's equatorial launch site in Kourou, French Guiana, is now referred to as "Europe's Spaceport" and launches European missions in cooperation with the commercial launch services company, Arianespace.[5] France's share of Arianespace is about 58%, making it the largest national shareholder, followed by Germany at 19%.[6]

The French space budget in 2005 was 1.7 billion euros in 2005 (approximately $2.1 billion).[7]  The total budget included subsidies of 681 million euros for the national space program and 685 million euros to ESA, as well as 370 of CNES' own funding.[7]   Restructuring and financial renovation within CNES was necessary in 2003 due to extended periods of financial loss since 1997, as well as the test launch failure of the most powerful version of the Ariane launch vehicle, the Ariane-5 ECA, in December 2002.[8]  French budget support to ESA is expected to remain at a constant 685 million euros per year through 2009.[8,9]  France is the largest national contributor to ESA, whose budget was 2.9 billion euros in 2005 (approximately $3.7 billion).[10]  The French Defense Ministry also received separate funding for FY2005 exclusively for its military space program, in the amount of 600 million euros .[7]

France became the third country to launch a satellite into space, after a Diamant rocket successfully orbited the Asterix-1 in November 1965.

[1] "Le CNES, l'agence spatiale francaise," CNES website, http://www.cnes.fr/html/_111_118_.php, translated by Rebecca Schauer.
[2] Michel Cabirol, "Flight Correction for the CNES," La Tribune, June 25, 2003; in "French Space Research Center President d'Escatha Interviewed," FBIS Document EUP20030623000013.
[3] "Le CNES et la Defense," Rapport d'activite, 2002,, translated by Rebecca Schauer.
[4] "ESA Facts and Figures," European Space Agency website, http://www.esa.int/esaCP/GGG4SXG3AEC_index_0.html.
[5] "Ariane, Time for Choices," Le Monde, April 15, 2003; in "France: ESA member Called On to Ensure Future for Ariane Launcher Program," FBIS Document EUP20030415000041.
[6] "Shareholders," Arianespace website, http://www.arinaespace.com/site/about/sub_main_shareholders.html.
[7] Cristiane Galus, "CNES Intends to Remain the Leader in European Space," Le Monde, February 13, 2004; in "French CNES Head Oulines Plans to Launch Six Ariane-5 Rockets, Other Spacecraft," FBIS Document EUP20040213000078.
[8] "Helios II-A Satellite Launch Will Boost France's Intelligence Gathering," Le Monde, December 19, 2004, FBIS Document EUP20041220000015.
[9] "French Government Approves Civilian, Military Space Spending," Air & Cosmos (Paris), April 8, 2005, FBIS Document EUP20050412000367.
[10] "La France, 'chef de file,' de l'ESA," CNES website, http://www.cnes.fr/html/_111_120_226_.php, translated by Rebecca Schauer.



In January 2004 India and the United States announced their "Next Steps in Strategic Partnership" (NSSP) initiative, which included discussion on both strategic stability and missile defense.[1] Besides previous joint missile defense workshops, a classified technical presentation on the PAC-2 missile defense system was made in New Dehli by American experts in February 2005, as part of the NSSP initiative, and purportedly an offer was made to sell the PAC-2 system to India.[1,2,3]  In March 2005 the offer was reported to include the advanced version of the PAC-2 with the radar and Engagement Control System used for the PAC-3 missile, which would allow India to upgrade its missile defense capabilities in the future.[3] It was also reported in March 2005 that Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) plans to sell the Arrow-2 ballistic missile defense system technology to India in the future, although no specific timeframe was given.[4] 


The space budget of India is approximately $500 million.[5]  This is considered to be the amount of funding received by India's civilian space agency, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).  It is unclear how much, if any, of this money is used for military space purposes.  India's space program focuses largely on scientific and commercial uses of space that can also be applied to civilian national development, such as reclaiming barren farmland and telemedicine.[6] Although the military has no dedicated satellites for exclusively military operations, certain satellites, such as the Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) launched in 2001 and Cartosat-1 launched in 2005, are dual-use and therefore can be used for both civilian and military applications.[7]


In September 2004 G. Madhavan Nair, chief of the ISRO, announced that India's plans for its first unmanned lunar mission, the Chandrayan, scheduled for launch in 2007-08 is on schedule.[5] In January 2004, President Abdul Kalam stated that "after [the] Moon, definitely, my final aim is going to Mars. Mars has got economical value and [the] Moon, material value."[8]

In 1980, under the coordination of ISRO, India became the ninth country and the first developing nation to design and launch its own satellite, after the Rohini-1 was launched on a Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV).


[1] Stephen G. Rademaker, Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control Remarks to the American Foreign Policy Council's 2004 Conference on "Missile Defenses and American Security" - "U.S. Pursues Cooperative Approach to a Limited Missile Defense," U.S. State Department website, December 17, 2004, http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive/2004/Dec/20-761571.html?chanlid=eap.
[2] Shishir Gupta, "Pentagon Team On Way For Missile Defence Briefing," Indian Express, February 16, 2005, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1344168/posts.
[3] "India: Rice to Assure 'Continued' Strategic Cooperation During Talk in Delhi," The Tribune (Chandigarh), March 16, 2005, FBIS Document SAP20050316000044.
[4] "Report -- India, Israel Expected to Strike 'Several More Deals' in Defense Sector," New Dehli Force, March 11, 2005, FBIS Document SAP20050311000078.
[5] "India's Unmanned Moon Mission Going Smoothly: Official," Spacedaily.com website, September 27, 2004, http://www.spacedaily.com/news/india-04p.html.
[6] David Rohde, "India's Lofty Ambitions in Space Meet Earthly Realities,"
The New York Times, January 24, 2004.
[7] Rezaul H. Laskar, "India to launch series of spy satellites," India Abroad News Service, February 14, 2002; in "Indian Space Agency to Launch Series of Spy Satellites," Hindustan Times, FBIS Document SAP20020214000035.
[8] "India will have mission to Mars, but it is Moon first: Kalam," Press Trust of India, January 17, 2004; in "Kalam Speaks About India's Plan to Launch Mission to Mars," Times of India, FBIS Document SAP20040117000002.{Revised 11/08/2005}



Iran currently has limited space capabilities and remains largely reliant on the technical expertise of other countries.[1]  Governmental power structures are generally weak in Iran and space policy decisions may be heavily influenced by informal circles of elites.[1]  That being said, formal structures governing space policy and its implementation do exist and at a minimum may be assumed to reflect the decisions of the informal structures.


The Iran Space Agency (ISA) was established in April 2003 in order to conduct "research, design and implementation in the field of space technology" and develop national and international space technology and communications networks and remote-sensing capabilities.[2]  It is presided over by a deputy from the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology.[3]  The Iran Space Council (ISC) was created in February 2005 in the pursuit of peaceful space activities for the development of culture, technology, science, and finance.[2]  The ISC is formally responsible for Iran's space policy and the ISA operates under its guidance.[3]  The council is chaired by the president of Iran.[2]  The deputy that heads the ISA is also the secretary of the ISC.[2] 


Iran has received help in space technological development from Russia, China, North Korea, India, and Italy.[4]  In order to achieve its space ambitions, Iran "is prepared to play a long game," according to British analyst John B. Sheldon.[1]


[1] John B. Sheldon, "A Really Hard Case: Iranian Space Ambitions and the Prospects for U.S. Engagement," Astropolitics 4 (Summer 2006).

[2] Iran Space Agency Website, http://isa.ir/en/rs/.

[3] GlobalSecurity.org Website, Iranian National Space Agency, http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/world/iran/agency.htm.

[4] William J. Broad and David E. Sanger, "Iran Joins the Space Club, but to What End?" New York Times, April 4, 2006, F1.{Created 4/17/2006}



Israel and the United States have developed Israel's Arrow missile defense system through joint cooperation and shared funding that began in 1988.[1]  The Arrow system is designed to protect Israel from short- and medium-range ballistic missiles in their terminal phase (after they have passed through space and are re-entering the atmosphere).[2]  The first fully operational Arrow system was deployed in October 2002 near Tel Aviv.[1]  The United States continues to assist Israel with improvements and upgrades to the Arrow system, including anti-ballistic missile system interception tests that were successfully completed under the Arrow System Improvement Program (ASIP) at Point Mugu, California, in July and August, 2004.[3,4]

Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI), which is the prime contractor for the Arrow system, signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with MBDA (Europe's leading guided missile company) in July 2004.[5]  Under the agreement, the two companies will "evaluate mutually reinforcing technologies and experience in order to support future ballistic missile interceptor system concepts."[5]  The CEO of IAI cited the need to develop new ways to combat expected advanced-capability ballistic missiles as the reason for the cooperation.[5]

It was also reported in March 2005 that IAI plans to sell Arrow-2 technology to India in the future, although no specific timeframe was given.[6]  According to the Israeli Defense Ministry, India is the largest consumer of Israeli-manufactured weapons.[6]

According to Haim Eshed, the head of space programs at the Israeli Defense Ministry, Israel's initial investment in its space program was driven by strategic considerations, especially the ability to observe the activities of other states without violating international law.[7,8]  It is for this reason that the primary focus of Israel's space efforts has been and continues to be the development of high-resolution imaging capabilities.[8]

The Israel Space Agency (ISA) was established in 1983 under the Ministry of Science.[7]  The ISA received initial funding from a special budget set up through the Ministry of Defense.[9]  In September 1988, Israel became the ninth country to launch a satellite, after a Shavit launcher successfully orbited the Ofek-1.

[1] Stephen G. Rademaker, Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control
Remarks to the American Foreign Policy Council's 2004 Conference on "Missile Defenses and American Security" - "U.S. Pursues Cooperative Approach to a Limited Missile Defense," U.S. State Department website, December 17, 2004, http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive/2004/Dec/20-761571.html?chanlid=eap.
[2] "Terminal Phase Defense," U.S. Missile Defense Agency website, http://www.acq.osd.mil/mda/mdalink/html/terminal.html.
[3]  "Arrow Anti-Ballistic Missile System Completes Successful Interception at Point Mugu in a Joint U.S.-Israel Test Program," Israel Aircraft Industries website, July 29, 2004, http://www.iai.co.il/site/en/iai.asp?pi=23048&doc_id=32551.
[4] Arrow Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems' Second Test at Point Mugu, U.S.," Israel Aircraft Industries website, August 29, 2004, http://www.iai.co.il/site/en/iai.asp?pi=23048&doc_id=32850
[5] "MBDA, IAI Sign Missile Defense Accord," Israel Aircraft Industries website, July 22, 2004, http://www.iai.co.il/site/en/iai.asp?pi=23048&doc_id=32390.
[6] Report -- India, Israel Expected to Strike 'Several More Deals' in Defense Sector," New Dehli Force, March 11, 2005, FBIS Document SAP20050311000078.
[7] Amnon Barzilay, "Advanced Military Satellites Unveiled," Ha'aretz on-line edition, August 3, 2003; in "Space Program Director: Israel Develops 3 Intelligence Satellites Simultaneously," FBIS Document GMP20030803000069.
[8] Amnon Barzilay, "Shavit's Ofek launch proves it can lift satellites—and weapon
s—say experts," Haaretz on-line edition, April 5, 2004.
[9] Arieh O'Sullivan, "Israel Air Force Changes its Name," Jerusalem Post, January 1, 2004; in "Israeli Air Force 'Unofficially' Changes Name To Israel Air And Space Force'," FBIS Document GMP20040130000052.



The Italian Space Agency oversees Italy's military and civilian space programs. Italy is a member of the European Space Agency (ESA) and participates in both ESA activities and national space projects. Motivated by the potential economic benefits, Italy would like to increase its involvement in the space industry.[1] To this end, it is expecting to increase its share in Arianespace, Europe's commercial launch services company, from 7.17 percent in 2004 to 16 percent by 2007.[1,2]

[1] Massimo Nava, "Today's Meeting Between ESA Member Countries; the Role of Finmeccanica and EADS," Corriere della Sera (Milan), February 4, 2004, p. 28; in "Italy Poised to Play Greater Role in European Space Effort," FBIS Document EUP20040204000071.
[2] "Shareholders," Arianespace.com website, http://www.arianespace.com/site/about/shareholders_sub_index.html



Japan has been working actively with the United States on missile defense since 1999, primarily in response to a Taepodong missile launch by North Korea over Japan in 1998.[1]  Japan decided to proceed with the development of a two-layer missile defense shield, using two U.S.-made systems: the sea-based Aegis Standard Missile-3 (SM-3), and the land-based Patriot PAC-3.[2]  Designed mainly to defend against North Korean missiles, the shield will target missiles in both the midcourse and terminal phases of their flights (with only the midcourse phase occurring in outer space).[2]  Japan intends to achieve "Initial Operation Capability" for the PAC-3 and Aegis/SM-3 systems by 2007, and "Full Operational Capability" for both systems by 2011.[1]   

Japan has spent approximately $131 million since 1999 on upgrades of the SM-3 system, through cooperative research with the United States.[1]  Japan dedicated $1 billion of its $42 billion FY2004 defense budget to missile defense. In 2005, the Japanese Defense Agency received Y118.8 billion (approximately $1.09 billion) for missile defense, including an additional $9 million for research on future missile defense systems.[1,3] 

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), created in September 2003 as a merger of three Japanese space agencies, coordinates Japan’s space activities.[4]  Though Japan's space programs center on civilian-related projects, Japan has begun to focus greater attention on its military uses of space.[5]  The budget for space projects for FY2004 was $2.7 billion.[6] 

Japan became the fourth country to launch a satellite on February 11, 1970, with the successful launch of a Lambda 4S-5 rocket carrying Ohsumi, the first Japanese satellite.

[1] Stephen G. Rademaker, Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control
Remarks to the American Foreign Policy Council's 2004 Conference on "Missile Defenses and American Security" - "U.S. Pursues Cooperative Approach to a Limited Missile Defense," U.S. State Department website, December 17, 2004, http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive/2004/Dec/20-761571.html?chanlid=eap.
[2] "Japan Decides to Introduce Missile Defense Shield," Kyodo World Service, December 19, 2003, FBIS Document JPP20031219000015.
[3] "Japan 2005 Defense Budget Strengthens Ability to Deal With New threats -- Part 1," Asagumo, March 3, 2005, FBIS Document JPP20050316000167.
[4] "AFP: Japan's Officials Say Lunar Plans Hit by Technical Hitches, Money Shortage," Hong Kong AFP, November 25, 2004, FBIS Document JPP20041125000025.[5] "Japan to Form Main Space Agency by Integrating Three Entities," Kyodo World Service, September 30, 2003, FBIS Document JPP20030930000099.
[6] James Brooke, "After Failures, Space Effort in Japan Gets a Lift," New York Times online edition, February 27, 2005.



The national space agency of Pakistan, the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), was established in 1962 as an autonomous research and development organization under the federal government.[1]  According to SUPARCO, Pakistan's space program is "aimed at furthering research in space science and allied fields, enhancing indigenous capabilities in space technology and promoting the peaceful applications of space science and technology for the socio-economic development of the country."[2] 

Up until 2002, a primary concern of Pakistan's space program had been the acquisition of a satellite in order to preserve the geostationary orbital slot allocated to it by the International Telecommunications Union in 1984.[3]  The total number of slots available in geostationary orbit are limited.  Because Pakistan was not able to place a satellite in the four orbital slots it had been assigned previously, it was given one final orbital position and a deadline of April 19, 2003, with the understanding that if the location was not filled, Pakistan would not have access to any future geostationary positions.[3]  In December 2002, Pakistan accomplished this task by acquiring the United States' HGS3 satellite, which was originally launched in 1996 as Indonesia's Palapa C1 and was later sold to Turkey.[2,4] When Pakistan leased the satellite, it was renamed Paksat-1 and was relocated from Turkey's orbital slot to Pakistan's.[2]

For FY2004-05, SUPARCO received 382 million rupees (approximately $6.4 million) of the Pakistani budget, which was to be used for the lease fees and operational costs of Paksat-1, as well as for feasibility and system definition studies for the Earth-Observation Satellite System (EOSS) and Paksat-IR projects.[5]

[1] "About Us," Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission website, http://www.suparco.gov.pk/sat_badr1.html.
[2] "Pakistan to launch first satellite o
n December 23," Islamic Republic News Agency website, December 2, 2002, http://www.irna.com/en/archive/head/021202145459.ehe.shtml.
[3] "Objectives and Outline of Space Programmes," Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission website, http://www.suparco.gov.pk/obj.html.
[4] "Hughes Global Services, Inc. Announces Deal to Provide Satellite to Pakistan," G2 Satellite Solutions website, August 6, 2002, http://www.g2satellitesolutions.com/pressreleases/paksat.html.
[5] Shiraz Aslam and Raza Mumtaz, "Agro-Industrial Oriented: Pakistan's New Budget Unveiled," Pakistan Times online edition, June 13, 2004, http://www.pakistantimes.net/2004/06/13/top.htm


North Korea

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), or North Korea, has an active ballistic missile program, with short-range Hwasong (Scud-derived) missiles, medium-range Nodongs, and longer-range Taepodongs.[1] Missile technology is a major export and source of national pride. It is also a bargaining chip with the United States, and tests are often timed strategically to put pressure on outside powers.[1] The effectiveness of such tactics is debatable.

North Korea's missile program received significant technology transfer in its development. For example, the Nodong appears to be derived from Russian SSN-6 submarine launched missiles, and may have been extended for the Taepodong-2 first stage with Chinese turbopumps.[2] North Korea shares its ballistic missile development with Iran and Pakistan, and advances and test data in one country are rapidly shared with others.[3] In particular, it is suspected that Pakistan supplied flight test data from the Ghauri-II (a rebranded Nodong) to North Korea, circumventing a self-imposed North Korean moratorium on flight tests from 1999 through mid-2006.[4,5] In addition North Korea is believed to have traded ballistic missile expertise to Pakistan for aid in nuclear weapons development.[6,7]

North Korea tested the Taepodong-1 missile in August 1998, which it described as a satellite launch.[8] The third stage failed to verifiably place any satellite into orbit, and U.S. radar tracked falling debris from the third stage.[5] The widely reported tests in July 2006 were intended to demonstrate the capability of the Taepodong-2. However, the missile failed 42 seconds after launch. Speculation on its theoretical range continues.

[1] Daniel Pinkston, "CNS Special Report on North Korean Ballistic Missile Capabilities," March 22, 2006, http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/week/pdf/060321.pdf.
[2] Charles Vick, "Taep'o-dong 2," GlobalSecurity.org, July 17, 2006, http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/dprk/td-2.htm.
[3] Charles Vick, "The Closely Related Collaborative North Korean, Iranian and Pakistani Strategic Space, Ballistic Missile and Nuclear Weapon Programs," March 23, 2006, http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/iran/missile-development.htm.
[4] Andrew Feickert and Alan Kronstadt, "Missile Proliferation and the Strategic Balance in South Asia," U.S. Congressional Research Service, RL31115, October 17, 2003.
[5] Joseph Bermudez, "A History of Ballistic Missile Development in the DPRK," CNS Occasional Paper #2, p. 24, http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/opapers/op2/index.htm.
[6] Sharon Squassoni, "Weapons of Mass Destruction: Trade Between North Korea and Pakistan," U.S. Congressional Research Service, RL31900, March 11, 2004.
[7] "CIA Assessment on DPRK Presumes Massive Outside Help on Centrifuges," Nuclear Fuel, November 25, 2002. [8] Peter Saracino, "CNS - Overview of North Korea's Ballistic Missile Capabilities," http://cns.miis.edu/research/korea/overview.htm.
{Updated 8/11/2006}


South Korea

South Korea has in the past been largely dependent on the United States for its space assets. In the late 1980s, Seoul's interest for an indigenous capability resulted in the formation of the Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) within the Korea Institute of Machinery and Metals.[1] KARI became independent in 1996, and is now tasked with research on and development of aircraft, satellites and launch capabilities.[2] In 2003, KARI had budget of 156.4 billion won ($150 million)[3].

KARI built a testbed for orbital launch vehicle technologies, the Korean Sounding Rocket (KSR), starting in 1990 with the solid-fueled KSR-I. A follow-on version, the KSR-II, with two solid motors in tandem was flown in 1997 and 1998. The program ended in 2002 with the three stage, liquid-fueled KSR-III.[4] The test rockets provided crucial experience for engineers and reliability data for motors, guidance and control systems for a future satellite launch vehicle (SLV). Several satellites have been designed and flown, with contracts to TRW and Lockheed Martin for construction and launch.[4]

Exposure to American technology has led to an appreciation for the military utility of space.[1] Missile development in the 1990s was slowed by a bilateral agreement with the United States limiting the range of its ballistic missiles to 180 km.[5] This agreement was superseded by South Korea's entry into the MTCR in 2001, which also allows the transfer of technology and knowledge from foreign entities, making possible development of a space launch vehicle (SLV).[6]

In 2001, the South Korean government set a goal of becoming one of the world's 10 leading space powers by 2015, and a new round of investment was made totaling $4.26 billion.[7] Contracts for a new Korean Space Launch Vehicle and space launch center at Doehung were signed with the Russian firm Energia in 2004.[4] Construction is expected to be complete near the end of 2007.[2] In addition, Russia has committed to send a South Korean into space in 2008.[8]

[1] Peter Marquez, "South Korea: A Space Power by Proxy," in Rebecca Jimerson and Ray Williamson, eds., Space and Military Power in East Asia, George Washington University, http://www.gwu.edu/~spi/spacemilch6.html.
[2] Korea Aerospace Research Institute, http://www.kari.re.kr/english.
[3] Kim Tong-hyung, "Korea Seeks to Bolster Aerospace Technology," Korea Now, April 16, 2005.
[4] Mark Wade, "Korea South." Astronautix.com, http://www.astronautix.com/country/korsouth.htm, Accessed June 21, 2006.
[5] Daniel Pinkston, "North and South Korean Space Development: Prospects for Cooperation and Conflict", Astropolitics, Vol. 4, No. 2, (Summer 2006).
[6] Nuclear Threat Initiative, "Country Overview: South Korea," February 2006, http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/SKorea/index.html.
[7] SpaceAndTech.com, "South Korea Publishes Launch Vehicle Development Budget," January 8, 2001, http://www.spaceandtech.com/digest/sd2001-01/sd2001-01-003.shtml.
[8] Interfax, October 25, 2005, http://www.mosnews.com/news/2005/10/25/koreanspaceman.shtml



Russia has an extensive history in space, having developed both advanced launch vehicles and military space capabilities.  The Russian Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos) oversees civilian space activities, while the Russian Space Forces (VKS) control military satellite launches, space object tracking and military flight control assets.[1] The VKS were created in June 2001 to offset the lack of combat readiness of the armed forces by increasing the use of space for Russia's military information-gathering needs.[2]  The current head of Roskosmos, Anatoli Perminov, was the previous commander of the VKS, which are now directed by Colonel-General Vladimir Popovkin.


Roskosmos' Federal Space Program for 2006-15 was approved in May of 2005.  It asked for federal spending of 305 billion rubles through 2015, as well as an increase of 6 billion rubles for 2006 for a total of 24 billion rubles.[3] This increase would have put its budget in line with civilian space expenditures of the United States as a percentage of GDP, but was denied.[3] Roskosmos announced in January 2001 that the current number of Russian satellites consists of "97 units, 81 of them operational, nine in reserve and seven used for other purposes than initially designed."[4] In order to help fund many of its space programs, Russia is focused on furthering its commercial launch prospects by developing more sophisticated, cost-effective technologies and cultivating its international partnerships.[5]


[1] "Russia: Government and Selected Ministries," NTI website, http://www.nti.org/db/nisprofs/russia/govt/ministry.htm

[2] Aleksandr Dolinin, Interview with Space Troops Commander Colonel-General Anatoliy Perminov, "Outer Space and the Military Security of Russia," Krasnaya Zvezda, April 27, 2001, p. 1; in "New Space Troops commander Colonel-General Anatoliy Perminov interviewed on connection between Space Troops' activities and various areas of country's development," FBIS Document CEP20010426000399.

[3] Ivan Safronov, "The Russian Space Agency Is Asking for Another 0.03 Percent of the GDP," Kommersant, May 23, 2005; in "Russian 10-Year Space Program Approved, Funding Increase Denied," FBIS Document CEP2005524308007.

[4] "Russian Space Authorities Report 97 Satellites in Fleet," Interfax, January 17, 2005, in FBIS Document CEP20050117000030.

[5] "Space Agency Head Calls for Greater Russian Presence in International Market," Interfax, August 21, 2003, FBIS Document CEP20030821000079.{Updated 10/31/2005}



The National Space Agency of Ukraine oversees Ukraine's space activities, which follow the objectives established in the National Space Program of Ukraine, a policy adopted by Ukraine's parliament.[1] Among the goals articulated for the 2003-07 timeframe are the development of increased commercial opportunities and international cooperation, as well as advanced technologies.[1] Ukraine also lists "space activities in the interests of national security and defense" as among its space programs and cites national security and defense capabilities as one of its primary missions.[1,2]

Ukraine has an extensive history in spacecraft and launch vehicle design and production stemming from its involvement in Soviet-era missile and space programs. Among the facilities created in Ukraine under the U.S.S.R. are the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau and the Yuzmash Production Association, which were responsible for the design and production of many types of Soviet missiles, as well as some launch vehicles and spacecraft.[3] Ukraine has continued to maintain these facilities, but is redirecting their efforts on commercial space prospects.[4]

[1] "Directions of Ukrainian Space Activities," National Space Agency of Ukraine website, http://www.nkau.gov.ua/nsau/catalognew.nsf/mainE/1CBACD36BC623C40C3256BF80052D398?OpenDocument&Lang=E.
[2] "NSAU Primary Missions," National Space Agency of Ukraine website, http://www.nkau.gov.ua/nsau/nkau.nsf/main3E/D447D090F609AAEDC3256BFB005D1867?OpenDocument&Lang=E.
[3] "Development of Company," Yuzhnoye website, http://www.yuzhnoye.com/index_e.htm.
[4] "Members of Ukrainian Aerospace Sector Brief Eisenhower Institute," Eisenhower Institute website, http://www.eisenhowerinstitute.org/programs/globalpartnerships/fos/newfrontier/ukraine-space.htm


United Kingdom

On June 12, 2003, the United Kingdom signed a Ballistic Missile Defense Cooperation Framework Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the United States that represents the basis for U.S.-U.K. industrial collaboration on missile defense.[1] Two annexes were later signed: 1) in December 2003, authorizing the United States to upgrade the phased-array early warning radar at Flyingdales for the purpose of missile defense; and 2) in October 2004, to further cooperation on research, development, testing, and evaluation.[1] The United Kingdom established its Missile Defence Center (MDC) in 2003.[1,2]

At the national level, the British National Space Centre (BNSC) is responsible for the United Kingdom's civilian space activities. According to the BNSC report entitled "The UK Space Strategy 2003-2006 and beyond," procurement of military space systems lies outside of the BNSC's partnership with the Ministry of Defence, and is only considered on an operational requirement and cost-effectiveness basis.[3] The report states that "[...]collaboration with the United States will continue to be fundamental to equipping the UK's Armed Forces with leading edge space capabilities."[3] The Ministry of Defence contracts out military space systems to private industry, as is the case with the military communications satellite constellation Skynet-5, which is being built by European Aeronautics Defence and Space (EADS).[4]

A key focus of U.K. space activities is microsatellite technology. The United Kingdom is home to Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd. (SSTL), the most recognized global supplier of small satellite technology.[5] SSTL provides small operational satellites for both civilian and military missions, as well as know-how transfer/training programs for newly established space-faring countries or those wanting to develop microsatellite technology.[6]

The budget of the BNSC for 2003-04 was approximately $358 million, with contributions from the Ministry of Defence totaling about $4.3 million. [7] The United Kingdom channels roughly 60% of its civilian space budget through the European Space Agency (ESA), of which it is a founding member country.[8]

In 1971, the United Kingdom became the sixth country to orbit a satellite after the successful launch of the Prospero on a Black Arrow rocket.

[1] Stephen G. Rademaker, Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control
Remarks to the American Foreign Policy Council's 2004 Conference on "Missile Defenses and American Security" - "U.S. Pursues Cooperative Approach to a Limited Missile Defense," U.S. State Department website, December 17, 2004, http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive/2004/Dec/20-761571.html?chanlid=eap.
[2] U.K. Ministry of Defence, Press Release, July 18, 2003, "Lord Bach Attends Launch of UK Missile Defence Centre," http://news.mod.uk/news/press/news_press_notice.asp?newsItem_id=2544.
[3] "The UK Space Strategy 2003-2006 and beyond," British National Space Centre website, http://www.bnsc.gov.uk/default.aspx?nid=4682.
[4] Clifford Beal, "New Vistas for UK Military Space," Rusi Defense Systems, Summer 2004, http://www.rusi.org/downloads/pub_rds/Beal.pdf.
[5] "Home: The Company," Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. website, http://www.sstl.co.uk/index.php?loc=21.
[6] "Home: The Company: History," Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. website, http://www.sstl.co.uk/index.php?loc=25.
[7] "Funding," British National Space Centre website, http://www.bnsc.gov.uk/default.aspx?nid=4691.
[8] "What is BNSC," British National Space Centre website,


United States

The U.S. government civilian space sector is directed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).  NASA identifies itself as maintaining four primary activities: aeronautics research, exploration systems, science, and space operations.[1]  Its 2006 budget stands at $16.5 billion, an increase of 2% from 2005.[2]


The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) oversees U.S. military space programs.[3]  Within DoD, the U.S. Strategic Command controls military space operations and is responsible for missile early warning and defense.[4]  The Air Force, Army, and Navy are major participants in military space operations.[4]  As DoD's  executive agent for space activities, the Air Force provides launch support, satellite control, missile early warning, and space surveillance.[3,5]  The undersecretary of the Air Force serves as director of the National Reconnaissance Office, which develops intelligence-gathering satellites and distributes the data to U.S. intelligence agencies.[3]  The Army operates a major military communications network, the Defense Satellite Communications System, and serves as the Missile Defense Agency's executive agent, while the Navy maintains its own satellite communications network.[5,6]  The United States maintains the largest military space program of any country, accounting for 95% of world military space spending. It is expected to increase its spending from $18.5 billion in 2003 to $25 billion by 2010.[7] 

[1] "What Does NASA Do?" NASA Website, http://www.nasa.gov/about/highlights/what_does_nasa_do.html.

[2] National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Budget Overview;  in Budget of the United States Government: Fiscal Year 2006 (Washington, DC: Office of Management and Budget, February 2005), p. 293, www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy06/pdf/budget/nasa.pdf.

[3] Marcia S. Smith, "U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial," Congressional Research Service Issue Brief, April 22, 2003.
[4] "US STRATCOM Headquarters," United States Strategic Command website, http://www.stratcom.af.mil/.
[5] "US Strategic Command Task Force Organizations," United States Strategic Command website, http://www.stratcom.af.mil/taskforces.htm.
[6] "USASMDC" U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command website,  http://www.smdc.army.mil/FactSheets/SMDCFACT.pdf.
[7] "Government Space Budgets to Continue Growth," SpaceDaily.com website, December 11, 2003, http://www.spacedaily.com/news/satellite-biz-03zzzl.html.{Updated 10/20/2005}